goals & motivation.


Holding, Anne Catherine, Moore, Emily, Moore, Amanda, Verner-Filion, Jeremie, Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle & Koestner, Richard. (2021). When goal pursuit gets hairy: A longitudinal goal study examining the role of controlled motivation and action crises in predicting changes in hair cortisol, perceived stress, health, and depression symptoms. Clinical Psychological Science, 9, 1214-1221. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702621995214

Koestner, Richard & Holding, Anne. (2021). A generative legacy: SDT's refined understanding of the central role of autonomy in human lives. Motivation Science, 7, 111-112. https://doi.org/10.1037/mot0000221

Moore, Amanda Marie, Holding, Anne Catherine, Buchardt, Lauren & Koestner, Richard. (2021). On the efficacy of volitional personality change in young adulthood: Convergent evidence using a longitudinal personal goal paradigm. Motivation and Emotion, 45, 171-185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-021-09865-7

Moore, Emily, Holding, Anne C, Moore, Amanda, Levine, Shelby L, Powers, Theodore A, Zuroff, David C, et al. (2021). The role of goal-related autonomy: A self-determination theory analysis of perfectionism, poor goal progress, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 68, 88-97. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000438

Thomas, Ben, Clegg, Kayleigh-Ann, Holding, Anne Catherine & Koestner, Richard. (2021). From the good life to good living: A longitudinal study investigating the relationship between good-life coherence and motivation, goal progress and subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-021-00476-0


Holding, Anne C, Barlow, Meaghan, Koestner, Richard & Wrosch, Carsten. (2020). Why are we together? A dyadic longitudinal investigation of relationship motivation, goal progress, and adjustment. Journal of Personality, 88, 464-477. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12503

Holding, Anne, Fortin, Jo-Annie, Carpentier, Joelle, Hope, Nora & Koestner, Richard. (2020). Letting go of gold: Examining the role of autonomy in elite athletes' disengagement from their athletic careers and well-being in retirement. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 14, 88-108. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.2018-0029

Jungert, Tomas, Levine, Shelby & Koestner, Richard. (2020). Examining how parent and teacher enthusiasm influences motivation and achievement in STEM. The Journal of Educational Research, 113, 275-282. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2020.1806015

Koestner, Richard, Powers, Theodore A, Holding, Anne, Hope, Nora & Milyavskaya, Marina. (2020). The relation of parental support of emerging adults' goals to well-being over time: The mediating roles of goal progress and autonomy need satisfaction. Motivation Science, 6, 374-385. https://doi.org/10.1037/mot0000169

Levine, S. L, Cherrier, S, Holding, A. C & Koestner, R. (2020). For the love of reading: Recreational reading reduces psychological distress in college students and autonomous motivation is the key. Journal of American College Health, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1728280

Moore, Amanda, Holding, Anne, Verner-Filion, Jeremie, Harvey, Brenda & Koestner, Richard. (2020). A longitudinal investigation of trait-goal concordance on goal progress: The mediating role of autonomous goal motivation. Journal of Personality, 88, 530-543. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12508

Smyth, Aidan P. J, Werner, Kaitlyn M, Milyavskaya, Marina, Holding, Anne & Koestner, Richard. (2020). Do mindful people set better goals? Investigating the relation between trait mindfulness, self-concordance, and goal progress. Journal of Research in Personality, 88, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2020.104015


Holding, Anne C, St-Jacques, Andre, Verner-Filion, Jeremie, Kachanoff, Frank & Koestner, Richard. (2019). Sacrifice-but at what price? A longitudinal study of young adults' sacrifice of basic psychological needs in pursuit of career goals. Motivation and Emotion, 44, 99-115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-019-09777-7

Holding, Anne, Hope, Nora, Verner-Filion, Jeremie & Koestner, Richard. (2019). In good time: A longitudinal investigation of trait self-control in determining changes in motivation quality. Personality and Individual Differences, 139, 132-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.11.001

Hope, Nora H, Holding, Anne C, Verner-Filion, Jeremie, Sheldon, Kennon M & Koestner, Richard. (2019). The path from intrinsic aspirations to subjective well-being is mediated by changes in basic psychological need satisfaction and autonomous motivation: A large prospective test. Motivation and Emotion, 43, 232-241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-018-9733-z

Holding, Anne C, Hope, Nora H, Harvey, Brenda, Marion Jetten, Ariane S & Koestner, Richard. (2017). Stuck in limbo: Motivational antecedents and consequences of experiencing action crises in personal goal pursuit. Journal of Personality, 85, 893-905. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12296

Zuroff, David C, McBride, Carolina, Ravitz, Paula, Koestner, Richard, Moskowitz, D. S & Bagby, R. Michael. (2017). Autonomous and controlled motivation for interpersonal therapy for depression: Between-therapists and within-therapist effects. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64, 525-537. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000239

Hope, Nora H, Milyavskaya, Marina, Holding, Anne C & Koestner, Richard. (2016). The humble path to progress: Goal-specific aspirational content predicts goal progress and goal vitality. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 99-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.10.038

Lekes, Natasha, Houlfort, Nathalie, Milyavskaya, Marina, Hope, Nora H & Koestner, Richard. (2016). The role of intrinsic values for self-growth and community contribution at different life stages: Differentially predicting the vitality of university students and teachers over one year. Personality and Individual Differences, 98, 48-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.093

Werner, Kaitlyn M, Milyavskaya, Marina, Foxen-Craft, Emily & Koestner, Richard. (2016). Some goals just feel easier: Self-concordance leads to goal progress through subjective ease, not effort. Personality and Individual Differences, 96, 237-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.002


Chua, Sook Ning, Carbonneau, Noemie, Milyavskaya, Marina & Koestner, Richard. (2015). Beyond the self in self-control: The role of relational interdependent self-construal in goal pursuit. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 32, 330-343. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407514533228

Jungert, Tomas, Landry, Renee, Joussemet, Mireille, Mageau, Genevieve, Gingras, Isabelle & Koestner, Richard. (2015). Autonomous and controlled motivation for parenting: Associations with parent and child outcomes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 1932-1942. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9993-5

Koestner, Richard, Powers, Theodore A, Milyavskaya, Marina, Carbonneau, Noemie & Hope, Nora. (2015). Goal internalization and persistence as a function of autonomous and directive forms of goal support. Journal of Personality, 83, 179-190. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12093

Milyavskaya, Marina, Inzlicht, Michael, Hope, Nora & Koestner, Richard. (2015). Saying "no" to temptation: Want-to motivation improves self-regulation by reducing temptation rather than by increasing self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 677-693. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000045

Powers, Theodore A, Gorin, Amy A, Hope, Nora, Holding, Anne, Chua, Sook & Koestner, Richard. (2015). Effects of neuroticism on goal support, goal progress, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 34, 674-691. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2015.34.8.674

Renaud-Dube, Andreanne, Guay, Frederic, Talbot, Denis, Taylor, Genevieve & Koestner, Richard. (2015). The relations between implicit intelligence beliefs, autonomous academic motivation, and school persistence intentions: A mediation model. Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 18, 255-272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-014-9288-0

Sadikaj, Gentiana, Rappaport, Lance M, Moskowitz, D. S, Zuroff, David C, Koestner, Richard & Powers, Theodore. (2015). Consequences of interpersonal spin on couple-relevant goal progress and relationship satisfaction in romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 722-737. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000043

Hope, Nora H, Milyavskaya, Marina, Holding, Anne C & Koestner, Richard. (2014). Self-growth in the college years: Increased importance of intrinsic values predicts resolution of identity and intimacy stages. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5, 705-712. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550613516875

Hope, Nora, Koestner, Richard & Milyavskaya, Marina. (2014). The role of self-compassion in goal pursuit and well-being among university freshmen. Self and Identity, 13, 579-593. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2014.889032

Koestner, Richard & Hope, Nora. (2014). A self-determination theory approach to goals. Gagne, Marylene [Ed]. The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, US; pp. 400-413. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=psyc11&NEWS=N&AN=2014-24108-025.

Milyavskaya, Marina, Nadolny, Daniel & Koestner, Richard. (2014). Where do self-concordant goals come from? The role of domain-specific psychological need satisfaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 700-711. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167214524445

Taylor, Genevieve, Jungert, Tomas, Mageau, Genevieve A, Schattke, Kaspar, Dedic, Helena, Rosenfield, Steven, et al. (2014). A self-determination theory approach to predicting school achievement over time: The unique role of intrinsic motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39, 342-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.08.002

Koestner, Richard, Powers, Theodore A, Carbonneau, Noemie, Milyavskaya, Marina & Chua, Sook Ning. (2012). Distinguishing autonomous and directive forms of goal support: Their effects on goal progress, relationship quality, and subjective well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1609-1620. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212457075

Lekes, Natasha, Hope, Nora H, Gouveia, Lucie, Koestner, Richard & Philippe, Frederick L. (2012). Influencing value priorities and increasing well-being: The effects of reflecting on intrinsic values. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7, 249-261. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2012.677468

Milyavskaya, Marina, Ianakieva, Iana, Foxen-Craft, Emily, Colantuoni, Agnes & Koestner, Richard. (2012). Inspired to get there: The effects of trait and goal inspiration on goal progress. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 56-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.08.031


Schattke, Kaspar, Koestner, Richard & Kehr, Hugo M. (2011). Childhood correlates of adult levels of incongruence between implicit and explicit motives. Motivation and Emotion, 35, 306-316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-010-9182-9

Koestner, Richard, Taylor, Genevieve, Losier, Gaetan F & Fichman, Laura. (2010). Self-regulation and adaptation during and after college: A one-year prospective study. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 869-873. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.07.019

McBride, Carolina, Zuroff, David C, Ravitz, Paula, Koestner, Richard, Moskowitz, Debbie S, Quilty, Lena, et al. (2010). Autonomous and controlled motivation and interpersonal therapy for depression: Moderating role of recurrent depression. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 529-545. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466509X479186


Powers, Theodore A, Koestner, Richard, Lacaille, Nathalie, Kwan, Lisa & Zuroff, David C. (2009). Self-criticism, motivation, and goal progress of athletes and musicians: A prospective study. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 279-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.03.012

Chua, Sook Ning & Koestner, Richard. (2008). A self-determination theory perspective on the role of autonomy in solitary behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology, 148, 645-647. https://doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.148.5.645-648

Downie, Michelle & Koestner, Richard. (2008). Why faster, higher, stronger isn't necessarily better--The relations of paralympian and women's soccer teams' performance to national well-being. Social Indicators Research, 88, 273-280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-007-9188-1

Downie, Michelle, Mageau, Genevieve A & Koestner, Richard. (2008). What makes for a pleasant social interaction? Motivational dynamics of interpersonal relationships. The Journal of Social Psychology, 148, 523-534. https://doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.148.5.523-534

Gagneo, Marylene, Chemolli, Emanuela, Forest, Jacques & Koestner, Richard. (2008). A temporal analysis of the relation between organisational commitment and work motivation. Psychologica Belgica, 48, 219-241. https://doi.org/10.5334/pb-48-2-3-219

Koestner, Richard, Otis, Nancy, Powers, Theodore A, Pelletier, Luc & Gagnon, Hugo. (2008). Autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress. Journal of Personality, 76, 1201-1229. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00519.x

Koestner, Richard. (2008). Reaching one's personal goals: A motivational perspective focused on autonomy. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 49, 60-67. https://doi.org/10.1037/0708-5591.49.1.60

Vallerand, Robert J, Pelletier, Luc G & Koestner, Richard. (2008). Reflections on self-determination theory. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 49, 257-262. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012804

Vallerand, Robert J, Pelletier, Luc G & Koestner, Richard. (2008). Special issue on self-determination theory: A Canadian contribution. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 49, 181. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012803

Lacaille, Nathalie, Koestner, Richard & Gaudreau, Patrick. (2007). On the value of intrinsic rather than traditional achievement goals for performing artists: A short-term prospective study. International Journal of Music Education, 25, 245-257. https://doi.org/10.1177/0255761407083578

Powers, Theodore A, Koestner, Richard & Zuroff, David C. (2007). Self-criticism, goal motivation, and goal progress. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26, 826-840. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2007.26.7.826

Zuroff, David C, Koestner, Richard, Moskowitz, D. S, McBride, Carolina, Marshall, Margarita & Bagby, Michael. (2007). Autonomous motivation for therapy: A new common factor in brief treatments for depression. Psychotherapy Research, 17, 137-147. https://doi.org/10.1080/10503300600919380

Burton, Kimberly D, Lydon, John E, D'Alessandro, David U & Koestner, Richard. (2006). The differential effects of intrinsic and identified motivation on well-being and performance: Prospective, experimental, and implicit approaches to self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 750-762. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.91.4.750

Downie, Michelle, Koestner, Richard, Horberg, Elizabeth & Haga, Silje. (2006). Exploring the Relation of Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals to Why and How People Pursue Personal Goals. The Journal of Social Psychology, 146, 517-531. https://doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.146.5.517-531


Houlfort, Nathalie, Koestner, Richard, Joussemet, Mireille, Nantel-Vivier, Amelie & Lekes, Natasha. (2002). The impact of performance-contingent rewards on perceived autonomy and competence. Motivation and Emotion, 26, 279-295. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022819120237

Kasser, Tim, Koestner, Richard & Lekes, Natasha. (2002). Early family experiences and adult values: A 26-year, prospective longitudinal study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 826-835. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167202289011

Koestner, Richard & Losier, Gaetan F. (2002). Distinguishing three ways of being highly motivated: A closer look at introjection, identification, and intrinsic motivation. Deci, Edward L [Ed], Ryan, Richard M [Ed]. Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY, US: University of Rochester Press, US; pp. 101-121. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=psyc4&NEWS=N&AN=2002-01702-005.

Koestner, Richard, Lekes, Natasha, Powers, Theodore A & Chicoine, Emanuel. (2002). Attaining personal goals: Self-concordance plus implementation intentions equals success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 231-244. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.83.1.231

Saragovi, Carina, Aube, Jennifer, Koestner, Richard & Zuroff, David. (2002). Traits, motives, and depressive styles as reflections of agency and communion. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 563-577. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167202288001

Deci, Edward L, Koestner, Richard & Ryan, Richard M. (2001). Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation in education: Reconsidered once again. Review of Educational Research, 71, 1-27. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543071001001

Deci, Edward L, Ryan, Richard M & Koestner, Richard. (2001). The pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: Response to Cameron (2001). Review of Educational Research, 71, 43-51. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543071001043

Losier, Gaetan F, Perreault, Stephane, Koestner, Richard & Vallerand, Robert J. (2001). Examining individual differences in the internalization of political values: Validation of the Self-Determination Scale of Political Motivation. Journal of Research in Personality, 35, 41-61. https://doi.org/10.1006/jrpe.2000.2300


Deci, Edward L, Koestner, Richard & Ryan, Richard M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627-668. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627

Deci, Edward L, Koestner, Richard & Ryan, Richard M. (1999). The undermining effect is a reality after all-Extrinsic rewards, task interest, and self-determination: Reply to Eisenberger, Pierce, and Cameron (1999) and Lepper, Henderlong, and Gingras (1999). Psychological Bulletin, 125, 692-700. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.692

Joussemet, Mireille & Koestner, Richard. (1999). Effect of expected rewards on children's creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 12, 231-239. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326934crj1204_1

Gagne, Marylene, Senecal, Caroline B & Koestner, Richard. (1997). Proximal job characteristics, feelings of empowerment, and intrinsic motivation: A multidimensional model. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1222-1240. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1997.tb01803.x

Beauchamp, Pierre H, Halliwell, Wayne R, Fournier, Jean F & Koestner, Richard. (1996). Effects of cognitive-behavioral psychological skills training on the motivation, preparation, and putting performance of novice golfers. The Sport Psychologist, 10(2) , 157-170. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=psyc3&NEWS=N&AN=1996-94109-004.

Senecal, Caroline, Koestner, Richard & Vallerand, Robert J. (1995). Self-regulation and academic procrastination. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135, 607-619. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1995.9712234

Craig, Judy-Anne, Koestner, Richard & Zuroff, David C. (1994). Implicit and self-attributed intimacy motivation. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11, 491-507. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407594114001

Koestner, Richard & Zuckerman, Miron. (1994). Causality orientations, failure, and achievement. Journal of Personality, 62, 321-346. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1994.tb00300.x

McClelland, David C & Koestner, Richard. (1992). The achievement motive. Smith, Charles P [Ed], Atkinson, John W [Ed], McClelland, David C [Ed], Veroff, Joseph [Ed]. Motivation and personality: Handbook of thematic content analysis. New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, US; pp. 143-152. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511527937.010.

McClelland, David C, Koestner, Richard & Weinberger, Joel. (1992). How do self-attributed and implicit motives differ? Smith, Charles P [Ed], Atkinson, John W [Ed], McClelland, David C [Ed], Veroff, Joseph [Ed]. Motivation and personality: Handbook of thematic content analysis. New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press, US; pp. 49-72. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511527937.004.

Koestner, Richard, Weinberger, Joel & McClelland, David C. (1991). Task-intrinsic and social-extrinsic sources of arousal for motives assessed in fantasy and self-report. Journal of Personality, 59, 57-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1991.tb00768.x

Ryan, Richard M, Koestner, Richard & Deci, Edward L. (1991). Ego-involved persistence: When free-choice behavior is not intrinsically motivated. Motivation and Emotion, 15, 185-205. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00995170

Koestner, Richard & McClelland, David C. (1990). Perspectives on competence motivation. Pervin, Lawrence A [Ed]. Handbook of personality: Theory and research. New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press, US; pp. 527-548. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=psyc3&NEWS=N&AN=1990-98135-020.

Koestner, Richard, Zuckerman, Miron & Olsson, Jennifer. (1990). Attributional style, comparison focus of praise, and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Research in Personality, 24, 87-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566%2890%2990008-T

before 1990

Koestner, Richard, Ramey, Allan, Kelner, Stephen, Meenan, Robert & McClelland, David. (1989). Indirectly expressed motivational deficits among arthritic adults. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 21-29. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00995542

Koestner, Richard, Zuckerman, Miron & Koestner, Julia. (1989). Attributional focus of praise and children's intrinsic motivation: The moderating role of gender. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15, 61-72. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167289151006

McClelland, David C, Koestner, Richard & Weinberger, Joel. (1989). How do self-attributed and implicit motives differ? Halisch, Frank [Ed], van den Bercken, John H. L [Ed]. International perspectives on achievement and task motivation. Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers, Netherlands; pp. 259-289. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=psyc3&NEWS=N&AN=1991-97988-016.

McClelland, David C, Koestner, Richard & Weinberger, Joel. (1989). How do self-attributed and implicit motives differ? Psychological Review, 96, 690-702. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.96.4.690

Koestner, Richard, Zuckerman, Miron & Koestner, Julia. (1987). Praise, involvement, and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 383-390. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.53.2.383

Koestner, Richard F. (1986). Praise, involvement and intrinsic motivation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47(3-B) , 1315. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=psyc2&NEWS=N&AN=1987-53584-001.

Koestner, Richard, Ryan, Richard M, Bernieri, Frank & Holt, Kathleen. (1984). Setting limits on children's behavior: The differential effects of controlling vs. informational styles on intrinsic motivation and creativity. Journal of Personality, 52, 233-248. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1984.tb00879.x

Wheeler, Ladd & Koestner, Richard. (1984). Performance evaluation: On choosing to know the related attributes of others when we know their performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 263-271. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2884%2990051-9

Ryan, Richard M, Mims, Valerie & Koestner, Richard. (1983). Relation of reward contingency and interpersonal context to intrinsic motivation: A review and test using cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 736-750. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.4.736